Strategic management accounting and performance measurement

An example of an organization that has developed relationships between process measures and financial results, Weirton Steel, a U. The key is that each stakeholder group must believe that, when the process is complete, there will be an acceptable balance between what they give to and receive from the organization.

There has been relatively little formal research published about the role of performance measures, other than financial measures, in practice. Pava and Krausz Rather, operations personnel tend to focus on the causes of financial results rather than the financial results themselves.

Horngren proposed three roles for performance measurement — scorecard-keeping, attention directing, and problem solving — that are loosely related to the three roles that we propose here.

For a summary of the literature examining the relationship between financial performance and social responsibility, see: Most of the organizations in our study clearly understood the role and nature of the community in affecting its ability to contract with its other stakeholders.

Pfeiffer, Gannetteer, March—Aprilp. Realistically, this process may be sequential and evolve over time. Waterhouse is the director of the School of Accountancy at the University of Waterloo.

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We define increasing shareholder wealth as providing a return to shareholders that exceeds the return that they require for the risks they face by investing in that organization.

One facet of employee satisfaction is employee loyalty, which some people believe creates improved organization performance and wealth. Each organization indicated that a major benefit of strategic performance measurement is to align or coordinate the activities of different organization groups and decision makers and to focus attention on the organization goals reflected in or communicated by the strategic performance measurement system.

This provides an important means of relating process improvement results, which are secondary measures of performance, to profitability results, which are primary measures of performance. Virtually every organization that commented on a Kaplan and Norton balanced scorecard article had installed a strategic performance measurement system.

However, we feel that the Kaplan and Norton view fails to recognize that stakeholder issues, including what stakeholders want from and offer to the organization, are issues that must be considered simultaneously, as they are in conventional SWOT analysis, rather than sequentially as the Kaplan and Norton model implies.

Government of the U.

University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, unpublished working paper, May Kaplan and Norton The strategic performance measurement model we develop here can be applied to profit-seeking organizations that have multiple primary objectives — for example, objectives that are owner-related and those that are community- or employee-related.

New York Controllership Foundation, ; and C. For an interesting discussion of stakeholder capitalism and shareholder capitalism, see: This is the basis and purpose for customer, product, and product line profitability evaluations.

Based on our observations in the organizations we visited during this study and based on other observations of practice, we believe that most people find it unnatural to think of their jobs in financial terms.

To provide a preliminary test and to refine our initial notions about the nature and role of strategic performance measurement, we visited twelve organizations that had outstanding reputations for their abilities to deal with one of the five stakeholder groups: Norton, The Balanced Scorecard Boston: These criteria are remarkably similar to the criteria for good performance measurement practice that were developed independently in other studies.

Our purpose was to determine whether and how each organization used performance measurement to support its performance level. These three roles of performance measurement have been understood, if not implemented in practice, for a long time.

Harvard Business School Press, However, the point here is that organizations in the studies quoted here seem to balance the needs and requirements of the community when pursing financial objectives.

Or, how does an employee incentive pay system translate into improved employee motivation and performance that, in turn, result in increased organization profitability? This does not mean that operations people are oblivious to financial considerations. About the Authors Anthony A.

Free Press,p. The causal relationship between social responsibility and financial returns remains unclear. Wells is the chief financial officer at the Bank of Montreal.

Therefore, operations personnel often find it unnatural to manage in terms of financial results rather than the physical process measures, which they feel are the causes of the financial results.

Reichheld, The Loyalty Effect Boston: The primary message of the tableau de bord is that managers need a set of relevant indicators to monitor the process or system for which they are responsible.

Acknowledgments The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support for this project provided by the Society of Management Accountants of Ontario. The tableau de bord is a performance measurement concept that has been the focus of attention in Europe, particularly France, for at least forty years.

For example, how does quality improvement translate into increased sales and profits?organization by developing an integrated framework of performance measurement. A) What is strategic management accounting (SMA)?. Each organization indicated that a major benefit of strategic performance measurement is to align or coordinate the activities of different organization groups and decision makers and to focus attention on the organization goals reflected in or communicated by the strategic performance measurement system.

See: Kaplan and Norton (). Utilizing Strategic Management Accounting Techniques (SMATs) for Sustainability Performance Measurement with information for social performance measurement and management? Performance measurement and management: a strategic approach to management accounting.

London: Thousand Oaks. 4th ed. (Studies in Managerial and Financial Accounting) Hudson. London: Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales.

and Gateway Series Performance Management Busco. and Humphreys. () The Moderating Effects of the Incentive System and Performance Measure on Managers' and Their Superiors' Expectations about the Manager's Effort.

Behavioral Research in Accounting For a set of performance measures to exhibit content validity in a strategic context, then, it must measure constructs related to the mission and strategic framework, the selected strategies, the firm's/SBUs' critical success factors, and operating choice variables.

Strategic management accounting and performance measurement
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