February 15, After rejection: African-Americans were prevented from voting on grounds of illiteracy or discriminatory administration of these literacy tests. Hayes was elected president after a highly contested electionreceiving support from three Southern states in exchange for a pledge to allow white Democratic governments to rule without federal interference.
Herndon Nixon sued for damages under federal civil rights laws after being denied a ballot in a Democratic party primary election on the basis of race.
From Slavery to Freedom: Amendments must be properly Proposed and Ratified before becoming operative. Persons who had been voters or descendants of voters could register as voters.
It eliminated any irrational preconditions for exercising the right to ballot. There have been 27 ratified in total, but one of these, the 18th, was Prohibition and another, the 21st, was the repeal of Prohibition.
This has never happened and its unclear exactly how such a constitutional convention would operate. The United States Congress can pass a bill setting out a proposed amendment by a vote of two thirds in each body.
February 12, After rejection: One day after it was ratified, Thomas Mundy Peterson of Perth Amboy, New Jersey, became the first black person to vote under the authority of the 15th Amendment.
April 8, After rejection: February 3, Secretary of State Hamilton Fish certified the amendment on March 30,  also including the ratifications of: The United States Congresswhenever a two-thirds majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives deem it necessary; OR A national conventioncalled by Congress for this purpose, on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds currently 34 of the states.
In the ensuing decades, various discriminatory practices including poll taxes and literacy tests—along with intimidation and outright violence—were used to prevent African Americans from exercising their right to vote.
In United States v. May 7, After rejection: The Northern states were equally unwilling to allow the right to vote to African-American people, both the newly freed and to those who had never been slaves. January 27, After rejection: The amendment went in favor of the third faction.
After conducting a search look for references to Senate Joint Resolution 8, Proposing an Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which is often referred to as S. Johnson introduced the Voting Rights Act of that Congress was able to put an end to this violence and discrimination.
Background The 13th Amendment abolished slavery, and the 14th Amendment granted U. It follows that the amendment has invested the citizens of the United States with a new constitutional right which is within the protecting power of Congress. It places their fortunes in their own hands.
Condon the Court again found in his favor on the basis of the Fourteenth Amendment. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation This collection contains congressional publications from toincluding debates, bills, laws, and journals.
The United States Constitution now has 25 functioning amendments. White male-only primary elections also served to reduce the influence of black men in the political system. Wade, President of the Senate pro tempore. The legislatures of three-fourths currently 38 of the states, within the stipulated time period—if any; OR State ratifying conventions in three-fourths currently 38 of the states, within the stipulated time period—if any.
This left the issue of suffrage with the States.
Now it is not. The first ten amendments were adopted and ratified simultaneously and are known collectively as the Bill of Rights. It prevents the States, or the United States, however, from giving preference, in this particular, to one citizen of the United States over another on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Inthe 24th Amendment made poll taxes illegal in federal elections; poll taxes in state elections were banned in by the U. Or a constitutional convention can be convened by a vote of two thirds of the state legislatures, which will propose one or more amendments.
If citizens of one race having certain qualifications are permitted by law to vote, those of another having the same qualifications must be.
Still, the Voting Rights Act of gave African-American voters the legal means to challenge voting restrictions and vastly improved voter turnout.
April 3, After rejection: Lynch later wrote that ratification of those two amendments made Reconstruction a success. MillerU.Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation Includes analysis of Supreme Court cases decided through August 26, Articles, amendments, the index and tables from the Constitution Annotated are provided here as separate PDF files.
Nov 09, · The 15th Amendment, granting African-American men the right to vote, was adopted into the U.S. Constitution in Despite the amendment, by the late s discriminatory practices were used to. Thirty-three amendments to the United States Constitution have been proposed by the United States Congress and sent to the states for ratification since the Constitution was put into operation on March 4, Twenty-seven of these, having been ratified by the requisite number of states, are part of the Constitution.
In either case, the amendments to the U.S. Constitution only become effective after being ratified by 3/4 of the states.
Some amendments are quickly ratified. The 27th Amendment, on the other hand, was proposed in and did not achieve final ratification until The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
The House of Representatives passed the 15th Amendment on February 25,by a vote of to 44; The Senate passed the 15th Amendment on February 26,by a vote of 39 to The text of the 15th Amendment can be found in the United States Statutes at Large, volume 16, page (15 Stat.